Protection and Management Plan for the Millbrook Marsh Nature Center

ivyrule.gif (786 bytes)

Wetland Wildlife

Wetlands support an amazing variety of wildlife species, with amphibians and reptiles heavily dependent, and many species of birds and mammals also making use o~ wetlands for feeding and breeding. Wetlands offer habitat for waterfowl and other waterbirds, such as herons, shorebirds, and kingfishers. Many migratory and resident bird species have been observed in and around Millbrook Marsh, including songbirds and raptors, especially those that eat insects and fish. Some are truly wetland dependent or obligate species, while the majority are not wetland specialists, but generalists. There are 70 species of endangered and threatened birds in the United States. Of these, 31% are wetland species (Rymon, 1989, p. 196). In Pennsylvania, 48% of all special concern species are associated with wetlands, and 40% of them are wetland specific (Clark and Klein, 1986, p. 211). Of the 11 species of turtles found in Pennsylvania, 10 of them occur in a wetland habitat at some stage in life (McCoy, 1989, p. 177). There are also about six obligate wetland species of mammals in Pennsylvania, including the northern water shrew, star-nosed mole, muskrat, mink, beaver, and otter (Kirkland and Serfass 1989). In addition, Pennsylvania has 11 bat species, all of which benefit from the concentration of flying insects over water and wetlands.

American crow

Corvus brachyrhynchos

American goldfinch

Carduelis tristis

American kestrel

Falco sparverius

American redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

American robin

Turdus migratorius

Barn swallow

Hirundo rustica

Belted kingfisher

Ceryle alcyon

Black capped chickadee

Parus atricapillus

Blue jay

Cyanocitta cristata

Brown-headed cowbird

Molothrus ater

Cedar waxwing

Bombycilla cedrorum

Chipping sparrow

Spizella passerina

Common grackle

Quiscalus major

Common snipe

Gallinago gallinago

Common yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

Coopers hawk

Accipiter cooperii

Dark-eyed junco

Junco hyemalis

Downy Woodpecker

Picoides pubescens

Eastern bluebird

Sialia sialis

Eastern kingbird

Tyrannus tyrannus

Eastern phoebe

Sayornis phoebe

European starling

Sturnus vulgaris

Field sparrow

Spizea pusilla

59 

Gray catbird

Dumetella carolinensis

Great blue heron

Ardea herodias

Green heron

Butorides striatus

House finch

Carpodacus mixicanus

House sparrow

Passer domesticus

House wren

Troglodytes aedon

Indigo bunting

Passerina cyanea

Killdeer

Charadrius vociferous

Lincoln’s sparrow

Melospiza lincolini

Mallard

Anas platyrhynchos

Mourning dove

Zenaida macroura

Northern cardinal

Cardinalis cardinalis

Northern flicker

Colaptes auratus

Northern mockingbird

Mimus polyglottos

Red-winged blackbird

Agelaius phoeniceus

Red eyed vireo

Vireo olivaceus

Red-tailed hawk

Buteo jamaicensis

Rock dove

Columba livia

Sharp-shinned hawk

Accipiter striatus

Son sparrow

Melosopiza melodia

Swam sparrow

Melospiza georgiana

Tree sparrow

Spizella arborea

Tree swallow

Tachycineta bicolor

Tufted titmouse

Parus bicolor

Warbling vireo

Vireo gilvus

White throated s arrow

Zonotrichia albicolis

Willow flycatcher

Empidonax traillii

Wood duck

Aix sponsa

Yellow warbler

Dendroica petechia

60

Table 12. A list of 6 species of amphibians and reptiles observed from 1993-1998 in Millbrook Marsh.*

Table 13. A list of 13 species or sign of mammals observed from 1993-1998 in Millbrook Marsh.

Beaver

Castor canadensis

Deer mouse

Peromyscus maniculatus*

Eastern cottontail

Syvilagus f]oridanus

Eastern gray squirrel

Sciurus carolinensis

Meadow vole

Microtus pennsylvanicus*

Mink

Mustela vision

Muskrat

Ondatra zibethicus

Raccoon

Procyon lotor

Short-tailed shrew

Blarina brevicauda*

Star-nosed mole

Condylura cristata

White-footed mouse

Peromyscus leucopus*

White-tailed deer

Odocoileus virginianus

Woodchuck

Marmota monax

* Small mammals live trapped in 1993 in Millbrook Marsh by Urban (1993).

On to Management and Monitoring