A Natural History of Millbrook Marsh,
A Wetland In An Urbanizing Setting

Vegetation

Table 5-1 Millbrook Marsh Vegetation 1954-1997
(Pursell 1954, PennDOT 1981, Western Pennsylvania Conservancy 1995, CWC 1995, Brooks et al. 1998)

W = Woody
T
= Pennsylvania Threatened
R = Pennsylvania Rare
E
= Pennsylvania Endangered

Scientific Name Common Name

Pursell
1954

Penn-DOT
1980

WPC
1995

CWC
1995

PSU
CWC
1994-7

Acer negundo (W) Box elder      

*

*

Acer rubrum (W) Red maple        

*

Agrostis alba Redtop        

*

Alliaria officinalis Garlic mustard        

*

Allium sp. Garlic/Leek        

*

Alnus rugosa (W) Speckled alder        

*

Angelica atropurpurea Angelica  

*

     
Apocynum cannabinum Claspingleaf dogbane      

*

*

Arctium munus Common burdock        

*

Asclepias syriaca Common milkweed        

*

Asclepias incarnata Swamp milkweed    

*

 

*

Aster spp. Aster        

*

Barbarea vulgaris Yellow cress        

*

Blephilia hirsuta Hairy wood mint        

*

Brassica rapa Field mustard  

*

     
Brassica spp. Mustard        

*

Bromus sp. Brome        

*

Calamagrostis Canadensis Canada bluejoint    

*

   
Caltha palustris Marsh marigold  

*

     
Cardamine bulbosa Small flower bitter cress    

*

   
Cardamine parviflora Small flower bitter cress        

*

Carduus nutans Nodding thistle      

*

 
Carex spp. Sedges  

*

 

*

*

Carex sp. (E) Sedge    

*

   
Carex comosa Sedge    

*

   
Cares conoidea Sedge    

*

   
Carex interior Sedge

*

*

     
Carex lacustris Lake sedge

*

 

*

   
Carex sp. (R) Sedge    

*

   
Carex leporina Hare’s foot sedge        

*

Carex leptalea Sedge    

*

   
Carex lurida Shallow sedge        

*

Carex sp. (T) Sedge

*

*

*

   
Carex schweinitzii (T) Schwienitz’ sedge

*

*

     
Carex scoparia Pointed broom sedge        

*

Carex stricta Tussock sedge    

*

   
Carex tetanica (T) Sedge  

*

     
Carex vulpinoidea Fox tail sedge        

*

Chelone glabra Turtlehead      

*

 
Cicuta bulbifera Water hemlock

*

*

     

Table 5-1 continued. Millbrook Marsh Vegetation 1954-1997

Scientific Name Common Name

Pursell
1954

Penn-
DOT
1980

WPC
1995

CWC
1995

PSU
CWC
1994-7

Cicuta maculata Spotted water hemlock        

*

Cirsium sp. Thistle        

*

Cirsium arvense Canada thistle  

*

   

*

Cornus amomum (W) Silky dogwood      

*

*

Cornus racemosa (W) Grey dogwood    

*

 

*

Cornus stolonifera (W) Red-osier dogwood    

*

*

*

Coronilla varia Crown vetch        

*

Crataegus spp. (W) Hawthorn      

*

*

Daucus carota Queen Anne’s lace        

*

Dipsacus sylvestris Teasel  

*

 

*

*

Eleagnus umbellata (W) Autumn olive        

*

Eleocharis sp. (E) Spike rush        

*

Eleocharis spp. Spike rushes  

*

*

   
Equisetum fluviatile Water horsetail

*

*

*

   
Equisetum hyemale Scouring rush  

*

     
Erigeron sp. Fleabane/Plantain        

*

Eupatorium perfoliatum Common boneset        

*

Eupatorium spp. Joe Pye weed        

*

Euthamia graminifolia Flat top fragrant golden rod        

*

Festuca pratense Meadow fescue        

*

Fragaria virginiana Virginia strawberry        

*

Galium sp. Bedstraw        

*

Galium trifidum Cleavers, Small bedstraw

*

*

     
Geranium carolinianum Carolina cranesbill        

*

Geum laciniatum Rough avens        

*

Glecoma hederacea Ground ivy        

*

Glyceria striata Fowl mannagrass    

*

   
Heracleum lanatum Cow parsnip        

*

Hesperis matronalis Dame’s rocket        

*

Hieracium caespitosum King devil/Hawkweed        

*

Impatiens capensis Spotted jewelweed  

*

*

 

*

Ipomea sp. Morning glory        

*

Iris pseudacorus Yellow iris      

*

 
Iris versicolor Blue flag iris  

*

   

*

Juglans nigra (W) Black walnut        

*

Juncus balticus var. littoralis or j. arcticus Baltic rush

or Wire rush

*

*

     
Juncus canadensis Canada rush        

*

Juncus effusus Common soft rush  

*

     
Juncus spp. Rush        

*

Juncus tenuis Slender rush        

*

Table 5-1 continued. Millbrook Marsh Vegetation 1954-1997

Scientific Name Common Name

Pursell
1954

Penn-
DOT
1980

WPC
1995

CWC
1995

PSU
CWC
1994-7

Lathyrus palustris v. myrtifolius Wild pea

*

*

*

   
Lemna sp. Duckweed  

*

     
Lepidium campestre Peppergrass        

*

Ligustrum vulgare (W) Common privet      

*

*

Lonicera tatarica (W) Tartarian honeysuckle        

*

Lycopus americanus American bugleweed        

*

Lysimachia nummularia Creeping Jennie or Moneywort  

*

   

*

Mentha arvense Field mint      

*

*

Mentha piperita Peppermint  

*

     
Mentha spicata Spearmint  

*

     
  Moss, numerous sp.  

*

     
Myosotis laxa Bay forget me not        

*

Nasturtium pensylvanica Watercress    

*

   
Nasturtium officinale True watercress  

*

     
Oenothera biennis Common evening primrose      

*

 
Oxalis sp. Wood sorrel        

*

Parthenosissus quinquefolia (W) Virginia creeper        

*

Phalaris arundinacea Reed canary grass        

*

Phleum pratense Timothy grass        

*

Pilea pumila Canada clearweed        

*

Plantago major Common plantain        

*

Plantago rugellii Pale plantain        

*

Poa sp. Bluegrass        

*

Poa pratensis Bluegrass    

*

   
Polygonum hydropiperoides Mild water pepper        

*

Polygonum lapathifolium Willow-weed        

*

Potamogeton spp. Pondweeds  

*

     
Proserpinaca sp. Mermaidweed  

*

     
Prunella vulgaris Heal-all        

*

Pycanthemum virginianum Mountain mint    

*

   
Quercus macrocarpa (W) Bur oak      

*

*

Ranunculus spp. Buttercups/Spearworts  

*

   

*

Ranunculus repens Creeping buttercup        

*

Rhamnus cathartica (W) Common buckthorn      

*

*

Rhus typhina (W) Staghorn sumac      

*

*

Ribes americanum (W) Wild black currant      

*

*

Ribes hirtellum (W) Northern wild gooseberry    

*

   

Table 5-1 continued. Millbrook Marsh Vegetation 1954-1997

Scientific Name Common Name

Pursell
1954

Penn-
DOT
1980

WPC
1995

CWC
1995

PSU
CWC
1994-7

Rorippa amphibia x sylvestris Creeping yellow cress        

*

Rorippa nasturtium aquatica True water cress        

*

Rosa multiflora (W) Multiflora rose      

*

*

Rubus sp. (W) Dewberry/Blackberry        

*

Rumex crispus Curly dock        

*

Rumex obtusifolius Bitter dock        

*

Sagittaria latifolia Broad leaf arrow head        

*

Salix discolor (W) Pussy willow    

*

   
Salix nigra (W) Black willow      

*

*

Sambucus canadensis (W) American elderberry        

*

Scirpus atrovirens Green bulrush        

*

Scirpus validus Softstem bulrush  

*

     
Scrophularia sp. Figwort      

*

 
Senecia aureus Golden ragwort        

*

Smilacina stellata Starry false Solomon’s seal  

*

     
Solanum dulcamara (W) Climbing nightshade  

*

   

*

Solidago sp. Goldenrod        

*

Solidago canadensis Canada golden rod        

*

Solidago rugosa Wrinkled goldenrod        

*

Sparganium sp. Burreed  

*

     
Sphenopholis obtusa Slender wedge-grass or wedge-grass    

*

   
Symplocarpus foetides Skunk cabbage  

*

*

*

*

Taraxacum officinalis Common dandelion        

*

Thalictrum polygamum Tall meadow rue  

*

     
Trifolium hybridum Alsike clover        

*

Trifolium repens White clover        

*

Typha angustifolia Broad-leaved cattail      

*

*

Typha latifolia Common cattail  

*

*

*

*

Ulmus americana (W) American elm    

*

   
Ulmus rubra (W) Slippery elm        

*

Urtica dioca Stinging nettle  

*

   

*

Verbena hastata Blue vervain  

*

*

*

*

Viola sp. Viola  

*

   

*

Vitis aestivalis (W) Summer grape        

*

Vitis riparia (W) River bank grape        

*

Xanthium chinense Clotbur  

*

     
Zannichellia palustris (status undetermined) Horned pondweed    

*

   
Species Richness = 155  

9

40

29

24

104

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Figure 5-3 Swamp Milkweed, Asclepias incarnata in Millbrook Marsh July 1998.

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Figure 5-4 Foxtail Sedge, Carex vulpinoides in Millbrook Marsh. July 1998.

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Figure 5-5 Blue Vervain Verbena hastata and Green bulrush Scirpus atrovirens in Millbrook Marsh. July 1998.

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Figure 5-6 Blue Vervain, Verbena hastata in Millbrook Marsh July 1998.

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Figure 5-7 Sedge, Carex sp. and Cattail, Typha latifolia in Millbrook Marsh 1998.

On to Species of Special Concern