A Natural History of Millbrook Marsh: A Wetland In An Urbanizing Setting
A Paper in  Ecology by Cheryl Joy Lipton
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science, August 1998
The Pennsylvania State University, The Graduate School, Intercollege Graduate Degree Program in Ecology

Table of Contents
Abstract
Acknowledgements
Methods
Chapter 1.  Political and Historical Setting
Chapter 2.   Physical Setting
        Description
        Land Use On-Site
Chapter 3.  Hydrology and Aquatic Habitats
        Springs
        Stormwater
        Water Quality
        Stream Morphology, Habitat, and Discharge
        Discussion
Chapter 4.  Geology and Soils
Chapter 5  Vegetation
        Vegetation 1954-1997
        Species of Special Concern
        Non-Native and Invasive Vegetation
        Cover Type Changes
        Discussion
Chapter 6.  Fauna
        Invertebrates
        Fish
        Amphibians and Reptiles
        Birds
        Mammals
        Discussion
Chapter 7.  Recommendations
References

Maps 169
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1 Centre County Population and Projected Population 12
Table 1-2 Centre Region Population and Projected Population 12
Table 3-1 Stream Discharge Data for Millbrook Marsh on June 13 and October 21, 1997 28
Table 3-2 Summary of EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocol III for macroinvertebrate sampling stations within Millbrook Marsh, July, 1997 36
Table 3-3 Dissolved Oxygen Levels in Millbrook Marsh Streams 1959-1989 39
Table 3-4 Turbidity Levels in Millbrook Marsh Streams 1978-1989 40
Table 3-5 Ammonia Levels in Millbrook Marsh Streams 1959-1989 42
Table 3-6 Kjeldahl Nitrogen Levels in Millbrook Marsh Streams and Springs 1959-1980 43
Table 3-7 Nitrate Nitrogen Levels in Millbrook Marsh Streams 1960-1989 43
Table 3-8 Total Phosphorus Levels in Millbrook Marsh Streams 1960-1989 45
Table 3-9 Ortho-Phosphorus Levels in Millbrook Marsh Streams 1960-1980 45
Table 3-10 Phosphate Levels in Millbrook Marsh Streams 1962-1986 45
Table 3-11 Chloride Levels in Millbrook Marsh Streams 1963-1989 46
Table 3-12 Fecal Coliform Levels in Millbrook Marsh Streams 1959-1989 47
Table 3-13 pH Levels in Millbrook Marsh Streams 1941-1989 49
Table 3-14 Summary of habitat composition in reaches of Slab Cabin Run and Thompson Run within Millbrook Marsh 53
Table 3-15 1997 Millbrook Mash Streams and Springs Discharge 58
Table 4-1 Water Analysis Data for 3 Locations in Millbrook Marsh Calcareous Fen 70
Table 5-1 Millbrook Marsh Vegetation 1954-1997 75
Table 5-2 Non-Native Vegetation in Millbrook Marsh, 1954-1997 86
Table 6-1 1997 Millbrook Marsh Benthic Macroinvertebrates 103
Table 6-2 1978 Millbrook Marsh Qualitative Benthic Macroinvertebrates 107
Table 6-3 1980 Millbrook Marsh Benthic Macroinvertebrates 110
Table 6-4 List of benthic taxa collected from Thompson Run in 1983 and 1984 112
Table 6-5 1987-89 Millbrook Marsh Qualitative Benthic Macroinvertebrates 114
Table 6-6 Millbrook Marsh Benthic Macroinvertebrate Diversity, 1980 and 1997 117
Table 6-7 Percent Dominant Taxa in 1980 and 1997 Millbrook Marsh Macroinvertebrate Communities 119
Table 6-8 1997 Millbrook Marsh Wetland Macroinvertebrates of Reference Wetland Site #56 and #57 122
Table 6-9 1997 Fish Collected in Millbrook Marsh 126
Table 6-10 Millbrook Marsh Fish Inventory 1979-1997 127
Table 6-11 Electrofishing Data for Brown Trout in Millbrook Marsh Streams 128
Table 6-12 Electrofishing Data for Rainbow Trout in Millbrook Marsh Streams 129
Table 6-13 Amphibians and Reptiles Observed in Millbrook Marsh 1993 to 1997 131
Table 6-14 Millbrook Marsh Bird Inventory 1995-1998 138
Table 6-15 1993-1998 Millbrook Marsh Mammal Inventory, Species or Sign of Mammals Observed 142
Millbrook Marsh Stream Transect Data Collected 7/29-31/97 165
Millbrook Marsh Stream Morphology Data 1997 168

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1 Centre Region Population Growth 12
Figure 2-1 Millbrook Marsh and Farm 12 , Puddintown Rd. on left, Rte. 322 at top. July 16, 1997……. 15
Figure 2-2 Bathgate Spring Run. Early spring, 1997. 15
Figure 2-3 Millbrook Marsh from southeast corner. East College Ave. on bottom, Rte 322 on right. July 1997. 17
Figure 2-4 Thompson Run at Puddintown Rd. and East College Ave. 1997. 17
Figure 2-5 Palustrine Emergent Wetland between Thompson Run and Slab Cabin Run. July 1998. 19
Figure 3-1 Bathgate Spring Run. July 1998. 26
Figure 3-2 Stormwater drainage ditch above the duck pond. The height of the author is 160cm. 30
Figure 3-3 Parking lot drainage entry into southeast corner of Millbrook Marsh behind College Township Building. 33
Figure 3-4 Swath left in emergent wetland vegetation within 100-yr floodplain from parking lot drainage, southeast corner of Millbrook Marsh. 33
Figure 3-5 Gravel bar formation in Thompson Run. July 1998. 54
Figure 3-6 Gravel bar formation in Thompson Run. July 1998. 54
Figure 3-7 Confluence of Slab Cabin Run (left) and Thompson Run (right), looking upstream. July 1998. 56
Figure 3-8 Slab Cabin Run just after Thompson Run confluence. Degraded streambank is opposite the confluence. July 1998. 56
Figure 5-1 Reference Wetland Site #56 Severely disturbed riparian depression, to the right of Bathgate Spring Run in photo mid-ground. July 1998. 74
Figure 5-2 Reference Wetland Site #57 Severely disturbed headwater floodplain along east side of Thompson Run, opposite the confluence with Bathgate Spring Run, just right of center in the photograph July 1998. 74
Figure 5-3 Swamp Milkweed, Asclepias incarnata in Millbrook Marsh. July 1998. 79
Figure 5-4 Foxtail Sedge, Carex vulpinoides in Millbrook Marsh. July 1998. 80
Figure 5-5 Blue Vervain Verbena hastata and Green bulrush Scirpus atrovirens in Millbrook Marsh. July 1998. 80
Figure 5-6 Blue Vervain, Verbena hastata in Millbrook Marsh. July 1998. 81
Figure 5-7 Sedge, Carex sp. and Cattail, Typha latifolia in Millbrook Marsh 1998. 81
Figure 5-8 Canada Thistle, Cirsium arvense, in field along Bathgate Spring Run in Millbrook Marsh. July 1998. 90
Figure 5-9 Shrub invasion, mainly Multiflora Rose, Rosa multiflora and Japanese Honeysuckle, Lonicera japonica College Township Building in lower left. July 1998. 90
Figure 5-10 Historical aerial photographs of Millbrook Marsh and vicinity documenting changes in land use and land cover 1948 - 1994. 91
Figure 5-11 Gravel deposit on Thompson Run bank in Millbrook Marsh 97
Figure 7-1 Stormwater drainage ditch above duck pond. July 1998. 146
Figure 7-2 Thompson Run streambank erosion in Millbrook Marsh July 1998. 146
Figure 7-3 Slab Cabin Run eroded streambank in Millbrook Marsh after confluence with Thompson Run. July 1998. 147
Figure 7-4 Confluence of Bathgate Spring Run (right) and Thompson Run (left) in Millbrook Marsh July 1998. 155

LIST OF MAPS
Map 1 Study Area and Context 169
Map 2 Spring Creek Watershed 170
Map 3 Land Use 171
Map 4 Circulation and Access 172
Map 5 Concept 173
Map 6 Management Zones 174
Map 7 Hydrology 175
Map 8 Soils 176
Map 9 Vegetation 177

Thesis Committee:
Robert P. Brooks, Professor of Wildlife and Wetlands, Thesis Advisor
Kenneth Tamminga, Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture
C. Andrew Cole, Research Associate, Affiliate Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture
Richard H. Yahner, Professor of Wildlife Conservation, In Charge of Graduate Programs in Ecology

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